Upper key stage 2

Historical knowledge

Chronological understanding

Pupils should continue to develop a chronologically secure knowledge and understanding of British, local and world history, establishing clear narratives within and across the periods they study.

Children can:

  • order an increasing number of significant events, movements and dates on a timeline using dates accurately;
  • accurately use dates and terms to describe historical events;
  • understand and describe in some detail the main changes to an aspect in a period in history;
  • understand how some historical events/periods occurred concurrently in different locations, e.g. Viking invasions of Britain, the Kingdom of Benin and The Golden Age of Islam.

Historical knowledge and understanding of events, people and changes in the past

Pupils should note connections, contrasts and trends over time.

Children can:

  • identify and note connections, contrasts and trends over time in the everyday lives of people;
  • use appropriate historical terms such as culture, religious, social, economic and political when describing the past;
  • examine causes and results of great events and the impact these had on people;
  • describe the key features of the past, including attitudes, beliefs and the everyday lives of men, women and children.

Historical skills

Historical interpretations and evidence

Children should understand how our knowledge of the past is constructed from a range of sources.

Children can:

  • find and analyse a wide range of evidence about the past;
  • use a range of evidence to offer some clear reasons for different interpretations of events, linking this to factual understanding about the past;
  • consider different ways of checking the accuracy of interpretations of the past;
  • start to understand the difference between primary and secondary evidence and the impact of this on reliability;
  • show an awareness of the concept of propaganda;
  • know that people in the past represent events or ideas in a way that may be to persuade others;
  • begin to evaluate the usefulness of different sources.

Historical enquiry and evaluation

Pupils should regularly address and sometimes devise historically valid questions about change, cause, similarity and difference, and significance.

Children should construct informed responses that involve thoughtful selection and organisation of relevant historical information.

Children can:

  • recognise when they are using primary and secondary sources of information to investigate the past;
  • use a wide range of different sources to collect evidence about the past, such as ceramics, pictures, documents, printed sources, posters, online material, pictures, photographs, artefacts, historic statues, figures, sculptures, historic sites;
  • select relevant sections of information to address historically valid questions and construct detailed, informed responses;
  • investigate their own lines of enquiry by posing historically valid questions to answer.

Presenting, organising and communicating ideas

Pupils should develop the appropriate use of historical terms.

Children can:

  • know and show a good understanding of historical vocabulary including abstract terms such as democracy, civilisation, social, political, economic, cultural, religious;
  • present, communicate and organise ideas about the past using detailed discussions and debates and different genres of writing such as myths, instructions, accounts, diaries, letters, information/travel guides, posters, news reports;
  • plan and present a self-directed project or research about the studied period.