# Key stage 1

## Place value

### Year 1

• Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
• Count numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens
• Identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations
• Read and write numbers to 100 in numerals
• Read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words
• Given a number, identify one more and one less

### Year 2

• Count in steps of 2, 3 and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward
• Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
• Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations including the number line
• Recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (tens, ones)
• Compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
• Use place value and number facts to solve problems

### Year 1

• Add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
• Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems

### Year 2

• Add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
• a two-digit number and ones
• a two-digit number and tens
• two two-digit numbers
• Solve problems with addition and subtraction:
• Using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
• Applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods

## Multiplication and division

### Year 1

• Solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher

### Year 2

• Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
• Show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
• Calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (x), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
• Solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts

## Fractions, Decimals and Percentages

### Year 1

• Recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
• Recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

### Year 2

• Recognise, find, name and write fractions:
• of a length, shape, objects or quantity
• of a length, shape, objects or quantity
• of a length, shape, objects or quantity
• of a length, shape, objects or quantity
• Recognise the equivalence of and
• Write simple fractions (i.e. of 6 = 3)

## Ratio and Proportion, Algebra

### Year 1

• Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems

Algebraic notation is not introduced until Year 6

### Year 2

• Recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems

Algebraic notation is not introduced until Year 6

## Measurement

### Year 1

• Compare, describe and solve practical problems for:
• Lengths and heights
• Mass/weight
• Capacity and volume
• Time
• Measure and begin to record the following:
• Lengths and heights
• Mass/weight
• Capacity and volume
• Time (hours, minutes, seconds)
• Recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes
• Sequence events in chronological order using language (ie. Before, after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening)
• Recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years
• Tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

### Year 2

• Choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length and height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg and g); temperature (°c); capacity (l/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
• Compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using <, > and =
• Recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value
• Find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money
• Solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
• Compare and sequence intervals of time
• Tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

## Geometry

### Year 1

• Recognise and name common 2D shapes (ie. rectangles including squares, circles and triangles)
• Recognise and name common 3D shapes (ie. cuboids including cubes, pyramids and spheres)
• Describe position, direction and movement, including whole, quarter and three-quarter turns

### Year 2

• Identify and describe the properties of 2D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line
• Identify 2D shapes on the surface of 3D shapes (ie, a circle on a cylinder or a triangle on a pyramid)
• Compare and sort common 2D shapes and everyday objects
• Recognise and name common 3D shapes (ie. cuboids including cubes, pyramids and spheres)
• Compare and sort common 3D shapes and everyday objects
• Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
• Use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise)

## Statistics

### Year 2

• Interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables
• Ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity