# Key stage 1

## Place value

### Year 1

- Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or from any given number
- Count numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens
- Identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations
- Read and write numbers to 100 in numerals
- Read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words
- Given a number, identify one more and one less

### Year 2

- Count in steps of 2, 3 and 5 from 0, and in tens from any number, forward and backward
- Read and write numbers to at least 100 in numerals and in words
- Identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations including the number line
- Recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number (tens, ones)
- Compare and order numbers from 0 up to 100; use <, > and = signs
- Use place value and number facts to solve problems

## Addition and subtraction

### Year 1

- Add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
- Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems

### Year 2

- Add and subtract numbers using concrete objects, pictorial representations, and mentally, including:
- a two-digit number and ones
- a two-digit number and tens
- two two-digit numbers
- adding three one-digit numbers

- Solve problems with addition and subtraction:
- Using concrete objects and pictorial representations, including those involving numbers, quantities and measures
- Applying their increasing knowledge of mental and written methods

## Multiplication and division

### Year 1

- Solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher

### Year 2

- Recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, including recognising odd and even numbers
- Show that multiplication of two numbers can be done in any order (commutative) and division of one number by another cannot
- Calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division within the multiplication tables and write them using the multiplication (x), division (÷) and equals (=) signs
- Solve problems involving multiplication and division, using materials, arrays, repeated addition, mental methods and multiplication and division facts, including problems in contexts

## Fractions, Decimals and Percentages

### Year 1

- Recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
- Recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

### Year 2

- Recognise, find, name and write fractions:
- of a length, shape, objects or quantity
- of a length, shape, objects or quantity
- of a length, shape, objects or quantity
- of a length, shape, objects or quantity

- Recognise the equivalence of and
- Write simple fractions (i.e. of 6 = 3)

## Ratio and Proportion, Algebra

### Year 1

- Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems

*Algebraic notation is not introduced until Year 6*

### Year 2

- Recognise and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction and use this to check calculations and solve missing number problems

*Algebraic notation is not introduced until Year 6*

## Measurement

### Year 1

- Compare, describe and solve practical problems for:
- Lengths and heights
- Mass/weight
- Capacity and volume
- Time
- Measure and begin to record the following:
- Lengths and heights
- Mass/weight
- Capacity and volume
- Time (hours, minutes, seconds)

- Recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and notes
- Sequence events in chronological order using language (ie. Before, after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening)
- Recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks, months and years
- Tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

### Year 2

- Choose and use appropriate standard units to estimate and measure length and height in any direction (m/cm); mass (kg and g); temperature (°c); capacity (l/ml) to the nearest appropriate unit, using rulers, scales, thermometers and measuring vessels
- Compare and order lengths, mass, volume/capacity and record the results using <, > and =
- Recognise and use symbols for pounds (£) and pence (p); combine amounts to make a particular value
- Find different combinations of coins that equal the same amounts of money
- Solve simple problems in a practical context involving addition and subtraction of money of the same unit, including giving change
- Compare and sequence intervals of time
- Tell and write the time to five minutes, including quarter past/to the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to show these times

## Geometry

### Year 1

- Recognise and name common 2D shapes (ie. rectangles including squares, circles and triangles)
- Recognise and name common 3D shapes (ie. cuboids including cubes, pyramids and spheres)
- Describe position, direction and movement, including whole, quarter and three-quarter turns

### Year 2

- Identify and describe the properties of 2D shapes, including the number of sides and line symmetry in a vertical line
- Identify 2D shapes on the surface of 3D shapes (ie, a circle on a cylinder or a triangle on a pyramid)
- Compare and sort common 2D shapes and everyday objects
- Recognise and name common 3D shapes (ie. cuboids including cubes, pyramids and spheres)
- Compare and sort common 3D shapes and everyday objects
- Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and sequences
- Use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement, including movement in a straight line and distinguishing between rotation as a turn and in terms of right angles for quarter, half and three-quarter turns (clockwise and anti-clockwise)

## Statistics

### Year 2

- Interpret and construct simple pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and simple tables
- Ask and answer simple questions by counting the number of objects in each category and sorting the categories by quantity
- Ask and answer questions about totalling and comparing categorical data